Background/Aims: Okara or soybean pulp is a by-product from soymilk production and is high in fibre and protein. Currently okara is not utilized and is classified as agro-waste. This study was conducted to develop nutritious baked doughnuts using okara. Okara was partly used as a substitute ingredient for flour in the manufacture of the doughnuts.
Methods: A market survey was conducted to determine consumer attitude and awareness of okara products. For the product development, four formulations were developed; S1, S2, S3 and S4 with 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% okara flour, respectively. Sensory evaluation (nine-point hedonic test) and proximate analysis of the doughnuts were conducted.
Results: In the market survey, it was determined that health and nutrition (r=0.50; p<0.01) played the biggest role in determining attitude and awareness towards okara food products, followed by price and convenience (r=0.40; p<0.01), weight control (r=0.40; p<0.01), and sensorial appeal (r=0.26; p<0.01). From the hedonic test, five attributes were taken into account: sweetness, texture, flavor, aroma and overall likeability. Sample S3 with 30% okara flour scored the highest overall likeability (6.36 ± 1.9). For the proximate analysis of the four formulations, the addition of okara flour in the doughnuts significantly (p<0.05) increased the protein, fibre, moisture, lipid and ash contents.
Conclusions: Taking into account both sensory evaluation and proximate analysis, sample S3 with 30% okara flour has the potential to be successfully commercialized as a nutritious product in the functional food market.
Funding source(s): UCSI University