Background/Aims: Ganoderma lucidum is an edible mushroom with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. The mushroom has been associated with a variety of pharmaceutical activities and it is thought that the triterpenoids are the main active group with chemo preventative properties.
Methods: We have utilized a bioactive fraction protocol to identify six triterpenoids by ESI-MS and NMR and were tested in three distinct cultured human cancer cell lines. The aim was to assess the effect of purified triterpenoids on cultured cancer cell growth
Results: Six compounds (ganodermanontriol, ganolucidic acid E, lucidumolA, 7-oxo-ganoderic acid Z, 15-hydroxy-ganoderic acid S, ganoderic acid DM) reduced cultured cancer cell growth in three cancer cell lines colon (Caco-2), the liver (Hep-G2) and the cervix (HeLa) to varying degrees. LC50 ranged from 20.87 µM – 84.36 µM. Ganodermanontriol had the greatest inhibitory effect in HepG2 cells with an LC50 of 20.87±1.48 µM, while 15-hydroxyl-ganoderic acid S exhibits the most cytotoxicity in HeLa and Caco-2 cells with LC50s of 21.17 ± 1.81 and 30.38 ± 1.44 µM respectively. Apoptotic cell death was observed for all compounds tested in Hela cells with 15-hydroxy-ganoderic acid S showing the greatest sub-G1 cells (22%) in cell cycle analysis and apoptotic positive cells in TUNEL assay (43.03%). These results were confirmed by annexin-V staining. Interestingly, none of the compounds induced apoptosis in Hep-G2 cells.
Conclusion: Bioactive triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum induce apoptosis and likely trigger different cell death pathways which are dependent on tissue type and function.
Funding source(s): N/A