Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to compare a higher-protein diet (HP) and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC) on psychological wellbeing outcomes in a T2DM population during weight loss and weight maintenance.
Methods: Adults (n=61, aged 55 ± 8 years, BMI 33.5 ± 4.8kg/m2) with T2DM (HbA1c 8.1 ± 1.4%) were randomised to a HP diet (30% protein, 38% carbohydrate, 29% fat) or a HC diet (21%:53%:23%) for a 12 week weight loss phase (WL) followed by a 12 week weight maintenance phase (WM). BMI, HbA1c and self-administered psychological wellbeing questionnaires (Problems Areas in Diabetes [PAID]; Perceived Stress Scale [PSS-10]) were assessed at baseline and at the end of each phase. Data was analysis using a linear mixed effects model.
Results: Forty four participants completed the study (HP n=23, HC n=21). Both diets resulted in a significant reduction (P<0.001) in BMI (HP: -2.8 ± 0.3kg/m2, HC: -2.6 ± 0.3kg/m2) and HbA1c (HP: -1.5% ± 0.2%, HC: -1.3% ± 0.2%) following WL with no difference between diets (P>0.05). These remained stable following WM (P>0.05). There were significant reductions (P<0.05) in the PAID Total Score following WL (HP: -5.7 ± 2.5, HC: -10.8 ± 2.6) and WM (HP: -5.1 ± 1.6, HC: -0.30 ± 1.7) with no difference between diets (P>0.05). There were no changes in the PSS score for either phase.
Conclusions: Diabetes-specific emotional distress reduced with improvements in HbA1c and weight management following both a HP and HC diet.
Funding source: Pork CRC