Introduction: Cadmium has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in observational studies. This study investigated the association of urinary cadmium (UCd) with CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality in elderly Western Australian (WA) women.
Method: UCd excretion was measured at baseline in 1359 women, mean age (SD) 75.2(2.7) years. UCd was analysed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer and 14.5 years of CVD events and deaths including both the principle cause of death and all associated causes of death were retrieved from the Western Australian Data Linkage System. UCd was log-transformed and Cox regression undertaken analysis was used to estimate HR of CVD. Models were adjusted for age, demographic and CVD risk factors.
Results: Median (IQR) concentration of UCd was 0.180 (0.09-0.32) µg/L. In multivariable-adjusted analyses per SD increase in UCd, there was a 14.2% increase in the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease death (HR per SD = 1.142, 95% CI = 1.022-1.275); death from heart failure (HR per SD = 1.417, 95% CI = 1.162-1.730); heart failure hospitalisation or death (HR = 1.195, 95% CI = 1.033-1.382); all-cause mortality (HR per SD = 1.109 95% CI = 1.023-1.202).
Conclusion: Environmental exposure to cadmium in WA is considered low. However, association with CVD endpoints and all-cause mortality were observed in older Australian women.
Funding source(s): NHMRC, Healthway.