Background/Aims: Energy and nutrient intake timing may be an important determinant of diabetes. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between meal specific food patterns and incident hyperglycemia in a Chinese adult population.
Methods: 1056 healthy adults aged 20 years and older were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record. Meal specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and follow up. Hyperglycemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5.6 mmol/l.
Results: During the follow-up 125 new cases of hyperglycemia were identified. Traditional (wheat) breakfast was inversely related but traditional (rice, vegetable and pork) lunch and dinner were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperglycemia, even after adjustment for a number of covariates. The prevalence of incident hyperglycemia was 5.3%, 9.1%, 15.9%, 17.1% across quartiles of traditional lunch pattern; 15.9%, 13.6%, 11.7%, 6.1% across quartiles of traditional breakfast. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for hyperglycemia was 0.67(95% CI 0.48-0.92), 1.83(1.32-2.53) and 1.39(1.04-1.86) for one unit increase of traditional breakfast, lunch and dinner pattern factor score, respectively. There was no association between modern breakfast (egg, cake, and milk), lunch (meat and alcohol) and dinner patterns and incident hyperglycemia.
Conclusion: A rice based traditional lunch and dinner is associated with an increased risk of hyperglycemia in Chinese adults. A traditional wheat based breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of hyperglycemia.
Funding source: N/A