Background/Aim: Breakfast is known as the most important meal of the day with multiple benefits, including both mental and physical. Determinants of breakfast include sociodemographic characteristics, weight concerns and feeling rushed in the morning. This study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review to describe the types of micronutrients and macronutrients consumed for breakfast, and identify the effects of cognitive and academic performance of elementary and secondary school students.
Methods: A database search was conducted using Scopus and Science Direct. The search terms included, breakfast, composition, quality, cognitive, academic performance, children, adolescent. Publications were limited 2005-2015.
Results: Fifteen relevant articles were included. Studies shows breakfast has a significant effect on cognitive and academic performance on children and adolescents with some benefits of increased memory, attention span in class and IQ. Carbohydrates were shown to be good source to fuel physical and mental functions. A low glycemic index breakfast was further found to increase attention and memory allowing students to remain on task during class.
Conclusion: Breakfast has significant effects on cognitive and academic function allowing for a longer concentration span and increased memory with class tasks amongst school children. Specific testing of macronutrients and micronutrients, extending the type of meal throughout the day to measure the types of effects that other meals have on cognitive and academic performance is an important consideration.
Key words: Breakfast, Composition, Cognitive, Academic, Performance, School, Students
Funding Source: N/A