Oral Presentation Joint Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of NZ and the Nutrition Society of Australia

Sex-dependent relationship between n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance: A systematic review (359)

Kylie Abbott 1 , Rohith Thota 1 , Tracy Burrows 2 , Shamasunder Acharya 3 , Manohar Garg 1
  1. School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
  2. School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
  3. School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia

Background: Previous research has shown an inverse relationship between long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3PUFA) and insulin resistance (IR), however, intervention trials have generated equivocal results. Previous findings by our research group suggest that the relationship may be sex-dependent, potentially accounting for inconsistencies in the literature. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether the responsiveness to n3PUFA interventions for type 2 diabetes prevention is sex-dependent.

Methods: Five databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Pub-Med) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that include: dietary or supplement n3PUFA intervention in adult populations; measures of IR; and a report of the relationship between the two. Subgroup analysis was used to explore sex-dependent differences.

Results: Thirty-two trials matched the inclusion criteria, including a total of 2326 participants (mean age 53.4yrs; BMI 29.7). Five trials were conducted in males only; seven in females and the rest (n=20) were combined. There was considerable heterogeneity in terms of trial duration (mean 12.8 weeks; range 3-48 weeks), n3PUFA dosage and placebo used. The main primary outcome measure reported was HOMA-IR. Studies in combined males/females did not show a significant relationship between n3PUFA intervention and measures of IR. In females, trials >12 weeks showed a significant improvement in HOMA-IR (p<0.05). None of the intervention trials conducted in males provided positive outcomes.

Conclusion: This review supports a sex-dependent relationship between n3PUFA and IR. Future intervention trials of at least 12 weeks duration should be designed to further elucidate sex-dependent differences.

Funding Source: NA