Background/Aims: To examine adequacy of and factors associated with dietary zinc intakes in Australian adults.
Methods: Dietary data were collected via two 24-hour recalls during the 2011-13 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=4282 men and n=4833 non-pregnant, non-lactating women, aged ≥19 years). Data were analysed using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method in PC-SIDE to calculate the prevalence of inadequate dietary zinc intakes. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with dietary zinc intakes accounting for the complex survey design.
Results: In men, the prevalence (SE) of inadequate zinc intakes increased with age, ranging from 39.5% (4.2%) in 19-30 year olds to 72.0% (5.1%) in ≥71 year olds. In women, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was similar across all age groups and was 12.8% (1.3%) for all women. For both men and women, higher zinc intakes were associated with: higher household income [mean difference between lowest vs. highest decile for men (95% CI): 2.4 (1.3, 3.5) mg/d; women: 1.4 (0.5, 2.2) mg/d], higher area-level socio-economic status [mean difference between lowest vs. highest quintile for men: 1.1 (0.3, 1.8) mg/d; women: 0.8 (0.4, 1.2) mg/d], and dietary supplement use [mean difference for men: 1.1 (0.6, 1.6) mg/d; women: 0.9 (0.6, 1.2) mg/d]. Food-insecure women had lower zinc intakes compared with those who were food secure [mean difference: 1.3 (0.7, 1.9) mg/d].
Conclusions: In Australia, men, individuals from low-income households and socio-economically disadvantaged areas, and food-insecure women are vulnerable to poor dietary zinc intakes.
Funding source: NHF.