Background/Aims: There is no recent published data on the dietary glycaemic index (dGI) or glycaemic load (dGL) of Australian adults, nor comparison of the patterns between adults and children. This study aims to identify these and determine the major food groups contributing to dGL, using the latest Australian Health Survey.
Methods: Food intake data from 8202 individuals (52.2% male), aged 0 – 95y, were analysed. The glycaemic index of foods was assigned based on a published method, and dGL was calculated. Glycaemic load contributed by food groups were described by age and sex.
Results: The mean (SD) dGI and dGL of participants were 54 (5.9) and 132 (49.2) respectively. The main contributors to dGL were breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours and grains, potatoes, soft drinks, sweeteners, cakes and fruit juices. Males had higher percentage dGL from starchy foods and soft drinks, whilst females had higher dGL from sweet and starchy foods such as cakes, sweet biscuits and chocolate. Per capita, energy-dense nutrient-poor foods contributed almost a quarter of dGL.
Conclusions: Less than 10% of participants were meeting the recommended dGI of 45. Efforts to target reduction in dGI and dGL of all Australians should concentrate on reducing consumption of energy-dense, starchy foods, or improving their quality.
Funding sources: N/A