Background/Aims: People with diabetes have a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease compared with the general population. The aim was to determine if increasing fruit (+1 serving), vegetable (+2 servings) and dairy (+1 serving) intake slows 12 month common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) progression, compared to a control group continuing on their usual diet, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcome measures were peripheral and central blood pressure, augmentation index (AI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV).
Methods: A 12 month randomised controlled trial was conducted. The primary outcome was mean CCA-IMT, measured at baseline and 12 months using B mode ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were peripheral and central blood pressure, AI and PWV, measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received dietary counselling from a dietitian at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months.
Results: One hundred and eighteen participants completed the study. Vegetable (46g/day; 95% CI 14, 77; p<0.001) and fruit (179g/day; 95% CI 119, 239; p<0.001) intake were increased at 3 months in the intervention group, compared to the control group. At 12 months CCA-IMT regressed (-0.01±0.04mm; p<0.001) with a greater effect in the treatment group (-0.02±0.04mm vs. -0.004±0.04mm; p=0.009). There was a time by treatment effect for peripheral diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) but no effect existed for central blood pressure, AI or PWV.
Conclusion: Improving dietary quality in people with type 1 and type 2 may slow CCA-IMT progression.
Funding source: University of South Australia.