Oral Presentation Joint Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of NZ and the Nutrition Society of Australia

The effect of improving dietary quality on measures of vascular structure and function in a population with diabetes (212)

Kristina S Petersen 1 , Jennifer B Keogh 1 , Natalie Blanch 1 , Peter M Clifton 1
  1. School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Background/Aims: People with diabetes have a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease compared with the general population. The aim was to determine if increasing fruit (+1 serving), vegetable (+2 servings) and dairy (+1 serving) intake slows 12 month common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) progression, compared to a control group continuing on their usual diet, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcome measures were peripheral and central blood pressure, augmentation index (AI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV).

Methods: A 12 month randomised controlled trial was conducted. The primary outcome was mean CCA-IMT, measured at baseline and 12 months using B mode ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were peripheral and central blood pressure, AI and PWV, measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received dietary counselling from a dietitian at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months.

Results: One hundred and eighteen participants completed the study. Vegetable (46g/day; 95% CI 14, 77; p<0.001) and fruit (179g/day; 95% CI 119, 239; p<0.001) intake were increased at 3 months in the intervention group, compared to the control group. At 12 months CCA-IMT regressed (-0.01±0.04mm; p<0.001) with a greater effect in the treatment group (-0.02±0.04mm vs. -0.004±0.04mm; p=0.009). There was a time by treatment effect for peripheral diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) but no effect existed for central blood pressure, AI or PWV.

Conclusion: Improving dietary quality in people with type 1 and type 2 may slow CCA-IMT progression.

Funding source: University of South Australia.